Global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration – Report of the Secretary-General (A/76/642) [EN/AR/RU/ZH] – World

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Summary

The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 73/195 of 19 December 2018, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General, drawing on the United Nations Network on Migration, to report to it every two years on the implementation of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, the activities of the United Nations system in this regard, as well as the functioning of institutional arrangements. This report also responds to the request made by the Assembly in its resolution 73/326 of 19 July 2019 to the Secretary-General, as part of the biennial report preceding each forum, drawing on the Network, to guide deliberations at the course of the forum, including the round tables and orientation debate envisaged, and to make the report available at least 12 weeks before each forum. The report draws on the inputs and outcomes of the Global Compact regional reviews, as well as specific consultations and discussions of Member States and stakeholders with United Nations system entities. The drafting of the report was overseen by the Executive Committee of the Network, comprising the International Labor Organization, the International Organization for Migration, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations Fund United Nations Children’s Fund, the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the United Nations Development Program and the Organization global health.

Introduction

  1. The need for a framework for cooperation on migration has never been clearer, and the foresight of Member States and stakeholders in crafting the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration has never been clearer. obvious. The first International Migration Review Forum, to be held in May 2022, provides a vital opportunity for the international community to reinforce the relevance and timeliness of the Compact, assess its impact to date and ensure that be used to equip societies for the future. challenges.

  2. Since the adoption of the Compact on December 10, 2018, international migration has remained pervasive and an issue of critical importance. This has been particularly evident in the response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, for better and for worse. Migrants were among the most affected groups, whether due to increased risk of COVID-19 infection, limited or no access to health services and social protection, job losses , discrimination, prolonged family separation, inability to access online learning and child services, or insecurity. and unworthy returns.

  3. The essential roles that so many migrants play as frontline service providers, essential players in our supply chains and crucial sources of support for their families and communities have been rightly recognized and celebrated in many countries. As states responded to the pandemic and its impacts, many have shown foresight in removing barriers, through policy or practice, to ensure non-discriminatory access to healthcare and vaccines and to ensure that migrant workers remain employed, for example by adapting regular routes . Others have halted deportations and accelerated the use of alternatives to immigration detention. Additionally, remittance flows remained resilient as critical sources of support for families and communities.

  4. Building on these examples will be an important part of the International Migration Review Forum and its outcomes. It will also be important to recognize and address the many remaining gaps, including how migration governance, whether or not it is a response to COVID-19, leaves too many migrants in desperate situations of vulnerability or deprives them of free will. Any failure to explicitly include migrants in vaccination plans undermines our commitment to broader public health goals and addressing inequalities undermines the solemn pledge to leave no one behind that Member States made in the sustainable development by 2030.

  5. It is also important to recognize that the COVID-19 pandemic has, in many ways, reshaped international migration. The evolution of mobility restrictions and entry conditions has profoundly changed the mechanisms and possibilities of admission, residence, work and return. It is clear, however, that many challenges predate the pandemic. Discrimination, xenophobia, misinformation and stigmatization of migrants or minorities associated with migration remain virulent. In this environment, migrants are reviled and even seen as threats. It is unacceptable that, in today’s world, thousands of migrants are subjected to great suffering and disappear or die during their migratory journeys.

  6. The guiding principles, goals and proposed actions of the Compact provide the roadmap to address these challenges. Indeed, as this report shows, the value of the Compact as a touchstone and guide for States has been demonstrated throughout the pandemic as they work to make migration work for all.

  7. Amid emerging transitions, the vision of the Compact must be promoted to facilitate and recognize the benefits of safe, orderly and regular migration for all and to enhance the potential of the Compact to promote the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Dedicated efforts, including through concrete commitments to Compact implementation, will be integral to the next phase of realizing the Compact’s vision. In particular, the upcoming International Migration Review Forum offers an opportunity to harness the power of multilateralism to provide concrete guidance in three areas of paramount and common importance.

  8. The first area concerns how inclusive societies can be further promoted and how to ensure that migrants are more effectively integrated into communities and economies, whether of destination, transit or origin, and are not not simply defined by their migration status.

  9. The second area concerns how regular migration can be further encouraged through diversified pathways, opportunities for regularization and sustainable reintegration, while combating the repercussions of the pandemic and preparing for the intensification of the effects of climate change. and the evolution of our societies and economies.

  10. The third area concerns how to reduce vulnerabilities that compromise the rights or well-being of migrants, their families and societies, including the tragedies that arise from irregular and precarious migration and the responses to them.

  11. The lessons of the pandemic provide a timely opportunity to recalibrate gender-responsive and child-sensitive migration governance at local, national, regional and global levels so that the commitments of the Compact, the 2030 Agenda and the declaration on the commemoration of seventy-fifth anniversary of the United Nations are fulfilled for all migrants, and in fact for everyone. As the first International Migration Review Forum approaches, this report calls on States to take concerted action to advance a world that genuinely promotes the rights, dignity and well-being of migrants and is based on cooperation and international law.

Overview of migration and migrants: global data and trends

  • The number of people living outside their country of birth or citizenship has grown significantly in recent decades, reaching 281 million in 2020.

  • As a result, the share of international migrants in the world population has increased from 2.8% in 2000 to 3.6% in 2020.

  • At the end of 2020, 35.5 million children, or 1 in 66 children worldwide, aged under 18 were living outside their country of birth.

  • In 2019, there were over 169 million migrant workers worldwide.

  • During the period 2015-2020, the net flow of migrants moving from less developed regions to more developed regions was estimated at 2.8 million per year.

  • The pandemic may have reduced the global number of international migrants by around 2 million by mid-2020.

  • Between January 1, 2019 and November 24, 2021, more than 8,436 migrant deaths were recorded worldwide; Another 5,534 migrants have disappeared and are presumed dead.

  • In 2020, officially recorded remittances to low- and middle-income countries stood at $549 billion, just 1.7% below the 2019 total.

  • At their peak in mid-December 2020, travel measures, mobility restrictions and border closures implemented by governments in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic exceeded 111,000 and, in November 2021 , more than 25,000 pandemic-related entry restrictions remained in place. place.

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